According to the Act on Establishment of Labor Courts and Labor Court Procedures. B.E.2522 (1979), the Labor Court has the authority to consider, decide or issue orders on the following matters:
- Cases of dispute concerning rights or duty under employment contracts or collective bargaining agreements;
- Cases of dispute concerning rights or duty under the law on labor protection or the law on labor relations;
- Cases in which rights must be exercised through the court under the law on labor protection or the law on labor relations;
- Cases of appeal against decisions of the competent officer under the labor protection or of the Labor Relations Committee or the Minister under the law on labor relations;
- Cases arising from cause of infringement between the employers and the employees due to labor disputes or in connection with work performance under the employment contract;
- Labor disputes that the labor courts are requested by the Minister of Labor Protection and Social Welfare to decide under the law on labor relations.
In the event a question as to whether any case is within the jurisdiction of labor court or not arises, it is decided by the Chief Judge of the Central Labor Court.
The procedures of the labor court are based on the inquisitorial system. In other words, the labor court plays an active role in finding out the real facts of the case and makes its decision based on its finding facts rather than acting as a referee of a contest as is the case in ordinary civil cases. The labor court, for example, has power to call for evidence it deems as necessary before passing its decision and may summon witnesses and take evidence itself as deemed appropriate. The parties and their lawyers can examine the witness only with approval of the court.